BITMAP IMAGE: A format for computer images made up of pixels, which are tiny dots of color that make up what you see on your screen. The quality of bitmap images is based on the number of pixels per inch.

FORMAT: How something is presented — its size, style and appearance. In computing, format is how a file or disk is organized.

LAYOUT: A plan for how elements of a design, such as text and images, will be arranged.

MEDIA: A means of communication, such as radio, television, newspapers and magazines, that reach or influence a large number of people.

VECTOR IMAGE: A format for computer images that consists of lines and shapes based on mathematical equations. The size of vector images can be changed without affecting the quality of the image.


Graphic designers use simple geometric shapes to communicate ideas. On a sheet of paper or on your computer, create three designs using only these three shapes to communicate: happiness, fear and anger. You can vary the size of each element and use them more than once.

image of frog


One of the attributes of color is its value. Value refers to a color’s lightness or darkness. It is expressed as a percentage, on a scale from light (10%) to dark (100%). Lighter tones of a color are called “tints.” Darker tones of a color are called “shades.” The tones that fall in the middle are called “midtones.” Did you notice the light and dark values of green in the leaves above?

value scale

Contrast is the difference we see when one color is placed next to another. Placing a light or bright object against a dark one creates high contrast, making it easier for us to see or read. That is why road signs are often black against yellow. That's why the frog stands out from his plant environment.

high contrast   low contrast


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